This site provides an efficient portal for continued professional development of Endocrine Surgeons

Latest Published Articles











Periop PTH, preop vitamin D and postop changes in calcium are biochemical predictors of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia


The aim of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis were to determine the predictors of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia. Some 115 observational studies were included. The median (i.q.r.) incidence of transient and permanent hypocalcaemia was 27 (19-38) and 1 (0-3) per cent respectively. Independent predictors of transient hypocalcaemia included levels of preoperative calcium, perioperative parathyroid hormone (PTH), preoperative 25-hydroxyvitamin D and postoperative magnesium. Clinical predictors included surgery for recurrent goitre and reoperation for bleeding. A calcium level lower than 1·88 mmol/l at 24 h after surgery, identification of fewer than two parathyroid glands (PTGs) at surgery, reoperation for bleeding, Graves' disease and heavier thyroid specimens were identified as independent predictors of permanent hypocalcaemia in multivariable analysis. Factors associated with transient hypocalcaemia in meta-analyses were inadvertent PTG excision (odds ratio (OR) 1·90, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·31 to 2·74), PTG autotransplantation (OR 2·03, 1·44 to 2·86), Graves' disease (OR 1·75, 1·34 to 2·28) and female sex (OR 2·28, 1·53 to 3·40).

Br J Surg. 2014 Mar;101(4):307-20. doi: 10.1002/bjs.9384. Epub 2014 Jan 9.








Primary hyperparathyroidism is underdiagnosed and undertreated


The electronic medical records (EMR) of a large, tertiary referral center were examined to study the prevalence of undiagnosed and unrecognized primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Of 2.7 million patients, 54,198 (2%) had hypercalcemia (>10.5 mg/dL). In a 2-year sample of 7,269 patients, 1.3% (95 patients) had a recorded diagnosis of PHPT, and 0.3% (16 patients) had parathyroidectomy. Of the remaining patients, parathyroid hormone (PTH) values were recorded in 32% (2,337 patients). Of patients with PTH measured, 71% (1,662 patients) had PHPT (PTH > 30 pg/mL). Patients with calcium of 11.1–11.5 mg/dL were most likely to have PHPT (55%). Patients with calcium >12 mg/dL were most likely to have PTH measured (52%). Of hypercalcemic patients, 67% never had PTH obtained, 28% of whom were likely to have PHPT. It is estimated that 43% of hypercalcemic patients are likely to have PHPT. The estimated prevalence of PHPT in the general population is 0.86%.

Surgery. 2013 Dec;154(6):1232-7; discussion 1237-8.










Vitamin D levels do not appear to have an effect on the risk of postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia


The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether perioperative vitamin D levels have any effect on postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia in 121 patients with available vitamin D levels undergoing total or completion thyroidectomy. The incidence of transient biochemical hypocalcemia was 24% (n = 29/121). There was no correlation between vitamin D levels and risk of postoperative hypocalcemia. On univariate analysis, performance of concomitant central compartment neck dissection revealed an increased risk of hypocalcemia (P = .06), but this finding was not significant on multivariate analysis.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Feb 27. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2014.25.





Complete resection of the thyroid lobe and reoperation for postop bleeding are risk factors for postop RLN palsy in benign thyroid nodules


The authors investigated the risk factors for postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) palsy and related outcomes in patients with benign thyroid diseases in 844 thyroidectomies. A total of 1,374 nerves were at risk during the thyroid surgery (bilateral risk in 530, unilateral risk in 314). No patient exhibited a bilateral RLN palsy. Unilateral postoperative RLN palsies were found in 45 patients (benign nodules in 25, Graves' disease in 19, and Hashimoto thyroiditis in 1). The RLN was involuntarily amputated in five patients during the operation. The incidence of RLN palsy was 5.3% per patient and 3.3% per nerve. The incidence of RLN palsy was greater in patients who underwent complete unilateral thyroid lobe resection compared with partial resection of the lobe (P = .04). The occurrence of RLN palsy was associated with the need for reoperation caused by postoperative bleeding and the reduced weight of the thyroid remnant in Graves' disease (P = .04 and P = .03, respectively). Among 40 patients with RLN palsy and excluding 5 amputated patients, the RLN palsy resolved in 34 patients (85%) within 12 months after the procedure. The remaining 6 patients (15%) were considered to have permanent RLN palsies.

Surgery. 2014 Mar;155(3):522-8. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2013.11.005. Epub 2013 Nov 14.


Follow us

Recommend this page on:

Contact us

Email us at:


You can also use our contact form.



Links to third party web sites are provided here. The School of Surgery Editors have reviewed all of these third party sites, but we neither control nor are responsible for any of the content. The views expressed in the links may not reflect the views or the practice of the Editors. Some users may find the content disturbing as it shows detailed surgical procedures. If you access any of the third party sites linked to this site you do so entirely at your own risk. In addition, the Editors strictly comply with the GMC's Policy on Social Media.